Friday, February 14, 2020

The Impact of Financial Crisis on UK Fiscal Policy and Government Debt Essay

The Impact of Financial Crisis on UK Fiscal Policy and Government Debt - Essay Example The current crisis is definitely more pronounced and prolonged than any other previous financial crisis, yet support from fiscal policy, monetary policy, use of guarantees on liabilities and purchase of assets has helped in reducing the direct fiscal costs (Laeven & Valencia, 2012). While such efforts might have led to minimizing the direct impact of the financial crisis yet it has been becoming a rising concern for fiscal sustainability in many countries, as the fiscal policy has led to increasing the public debt burden as well as the government contingent liabilities size. Fiscal policy holds great interest for policy makers as it has the ability to act as an instrumental tool for growth and development in the long run (Brahmbhatt & Otaviano, 2012). Fiscal policy is no business strategy, for a national economy is by no means a business, it does not earn; rather it implies how the public is taxed and how the government spends the gathered money (debt bombshell, 2012). In the UK the national debt is the amount that is owed to the private sector and UK gilts purchases. The government spends more money than it can afford to tax, leading to selling bonds/gilts.The case study is based on two economic theories and their fundamental aspects while addressing the research questions.Battaglini and Coate (2008) presented the political economy model. The model was meant to understand the influence of the fiscal policy that it has on the Business cycle

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Monet Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Monet - Essay Example Bearing in mind how all these painters elaborated their strongly personal manners relating to the new imaginative ideas, one notices that the new aspects appeared most frequently in the work of Monet to be captured by the other Impressionists including them as ideas or as explicit methods and applying them in their own ways (Monet biography,, Monet, Monet's father wanted him to go into the family business of trading in grocery supplies but Monet (the second son of Claude-Adolphe and Louise-Justine Aubre Monet) wanted to become an artist and was admitted in the Le Havre secondary school of the arts in 1851 after his family shifted at that region. He was not a typical, good student in school. He had said, "School seemed like a prison and I could never bear to stay there, especially when the sunshine beckoned and the sea was smooth." He always drew funny caricatures of his teachers. He always got in trouble for his drawings, but he became very good at them ( It was Eugene Boudin Boudin, his early mentor, who used to draw his sketches outdoors that pushed Monet to do the same. "Suddenly the veil was torn away.... My destiny as a painter opened out to me," he later said. For the next 60 years Monet delved into the effects of light on open-air scenes (plein-air landscape painting). He was the first artist to let his f irst impressions remain as finished works, rather than as "notes" for doing work inside the studio. (House, 1998, Monet bio, After his mother died when he was only 16 years (in 1857) he left school, went to live with his childless aunt. His family was not very happy about his occupation as a painter. In 1860 he was conscripted and had to go to Northern Africa for two years. After his return he took a trip to Paris to visit the Louvre Museum copying old masters and took painting lessons at Gleyre's studio in Paris wher he got to know Auguste Renoir, Sisley, Bazille, Pissarro ,Edouard Manet.and others. The basis of the future Impressionist movement was built. Monet liked to paint water, the way colors reflected in the water and boats, seas, and lakes were some of his pet subjects, so much so that after he married in 1870 (he married his favorite model Camille, whom he painted in Women in the Garden), and settled in Argenteuil, he fixed a boat with an easel and painted his way wavering down the Seine River, seizing his impressions of the relationship of light, water and surroundings. The boat served him as h is floating studio where he kept paints, brushes, canvas, and drawing materials (, Colors in plein air Soon, Monet averted from the conventional style of painting inside a studio and with his new friends went outside in the Fontainebleau forest to paint in the open air. Albeit Monet painted outside, he never found it to be easy. Every time, more or less, he painted outside, a bit got glued to the wet paint. If he was in the wilderness, sand and rock would get attached to his paintings. In the forest, leaves and other things would fix to his

Friday, January 24, 2020

Identifying the Enemy in a War Against Terrorism :: September 11 Terrorism Essays

Identifying the Enemy in a War Against Terrorism Abstract: In the good old days, it seemed like such an easy task to identify and give a face to who were your friends and foes at time of war, even at the risk of racial and cultural stereotyping. We are finding that it is very difficult to be at war with a concept like "international terrorism" because we also must give it a face. During World War II an article was published in the December 22, 1941 issue of Life magazine titled "A Handbook for Americans." A section of the handbook detailed ways that Americans could "tell a Jap from a Chinese." I found these stereotypes to be quite ridiculous – but the article underscores that there are some problems of mobilizing a society for war, whether it is against Japan in 1941 or against international terrorism in 2001. One problem that would seem the easiest to solve is: "How do you identify friend from foe?" Another problem is: "How not to lose friends and alienate bystanders who might get caught in the middle in the process of waging war on one's foes?" The nature of terrorism makes both tasks difficult. In a recent book on 21st century terrorism, Cindy Combs notes that terrorism is a synthesis of war and theatre: a dramatization of violence which is perpetrated on innocent victims and played before an audience in the hope of creating a mood of fear without apology or remorse for political purposes. Terrorism is therefore by its nature a clandestine activity carried out by actors operating in the shadows of societies. Who are the individuals and groups who practice this tactic? What would a profile look like of today's "typical" terrorist? We know that they are young - having in some cases been recruited in secondary schools. They are both men and women who have less formal education and family wealth than their counterparts in the 1960s. More importantly, in confronting them we know that they engage in dehumanizing their victims - victims do not have an individual face, nor are they parents or husbands or wives - they are simply the "enemy." Coupled with this tendency to engage in w hat one noted social psychologist calls "black and white thinking," today's terrorist commits to the abandonment of all restraints on the use of violence.

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Engaging Students In Learning Process Essay

Abstract Technology plays a great role in education. Students get motivated when technology based education is given in the classroom. WebQuests involve inquiry-based learning in which students are encouraged to learn in group. The present paper provides information about the use of WebQuest as an educational technology. Various aspects of WebQuests are covered in this paper such as definition of WebQuest, components, use of WebQuest as a constructivist tool, implementation of WebQuest and advantages and disadvantages of WebQuests. Recommendations are given at the end of the paper. The author also provides a self-made WebQuest for year 9-10 students attached to this paper. Engaging Students in Learning Processing Using WebQuests Introduction Technology has been used as a teaching tool in schools since many years. It is very important to know the ways through which the technology can be employed to bring new opportunities to students to enhance their learning abilities. Technology offers numerous benefits to students. Technology offers tools that can be used to enhance the learning ability of a student. Thinking skills can also be enhanced with the use of technology in education. Students receive a variety of learning activities are authentic too. Students are encouraged for the regulation of their learning process depending on their abilities (Cho & Jonassen 2002). Despite numerous benefits, technology possesses some challenges too. Students usually do not wait to take proper guidelines from the instructor and they start using technology in their classrooms immediately. Thus they have to face a large number of difficulties too. It is believed that the traditional way to assess the performance of students need to be shifted from paper and pencil to technology based methods because a large number of students in schools and colleges are now using technology such as word processors and spreadsheets in doing their work. Thus the traditional method seems to be failed as this method can not explain and assess what the students have learned from technical way. The paper and pencil mode of assessment is left behind (Almeida, Vesu, and Ponte, 2003). Another study explained that technology based education is quite promising because it can help foster the creation of communities and the learners become able to perform several tasks such as: learners get more open opportunities to enhance the communication process in the classroom; discussions among students and between students and teachers may be encouraged; and the authority is shared among students and teacher because the classroom is now more rich in resources (Brooks & Brooks, 1999).   This paper provides information about the use of WebQuest as an educational technology used in the classroom. WebQuest Definition WebQuest can be defined as a tool that is effective for learning in an online inquiry-oriented environment. This can be explained as: in this type of learning, students are encouraged for the evaluation and exploration of required information with the help of World Wide Web in their classrooms (Chandler 2003). According to Tom March, Circa (2003): â€Å"A WebQuest is a scaffolded learning structure that uses links to essential resources on the World Wide Web and an authentic task to motivate students’ investigation of a central, open-ended question, development of individual expertise and participation in a final group process that attempts to transform newly acquired information into a more sophisticated understanding. The best WebQuests do this in a way that inspires students to see richer thematic relationships, facilitate a contribution to the real world of learning and reflect on their own meta-cognitive processes (p.1).† WebQuests are of varying lengths. Sometimes they are short enough to cover just in one class period and sometimes they require a month for completion. Group work is usually encouraged in WebQuests as each member of the work group is assign specific tasks to perform. The teacher is responsible for the selection of the specific resources prior the WebQuest use in the classroom. Thus, students are given the time to use the information and they need not to spend any time to look for the specific material (Dodge 1997). Source: (Tom March, 2007). Components and Types of WebQuests   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There are six important components of WebQuest. They are named as:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Introduction:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In this section, background information is provided to the learners. Students are given specific tasks and roles to motivate them. For example: â€Å"You are a geologist looking for volcanoes. Students are provided with the overview in the beginning that tells them about their goals they have to achieved in their learning process.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Introduction is presented to the students in such a way that they desire to perform that activity along with fun. Students are assigned the projects that are relevant to their previous experiences, students, future plans or ideas. When students receive projects of their interests, they get involved easily in them. Thus it is the main purpose of the introduction section of each WebQuest to motivate each student by exciting and engaging them. When the WebQuest is based on a longer period such as over a month then the introduction is given daily to the students to refresh their memory and to let them find the most appropriate material for their project. In long-term WebQuest, real world components such as print media and guest lectures are given to the students along their online investigation. The addition of real world components is very important for long-term WebQuests because if students are allowed to rely only on the online investigations then they may consider the meanings of the lesson as something unreal. Thus, in a long-term WebQuest projects, introduction is given daily to the students to keep them up-to-date with all the information and necessary material for they motivation (Dodge 2001).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Task Task is the second component of a WebQuest. The purpose of this component is to inform the students about the lessons to be learned till the end of the project.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Initially, the teachers have to look for the specific information that is required in a specific project. Then they design the activity that requires the information gathered from online resources. Students are given the task that is to be performed by searching the information online. The task is designed in a way to make it doable, means that each task must has to be accomplished.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The most difficult part in the creation of a WebQuest project is the development of the main research question. This part is quite creative and needs a certain amount of time to search whether the question can be answered. Students can be asked to do a variety of tasks such as they may need to circulate the information they gathered on the website, they may be asked to work in collaboration with other online institution to perform specific research for the completion of a project and they may be asked to explain their research by using multimedia. The students are encouraged to complete their task in an interesting, appealing, visual and important manner.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Students should be given an example of a completed project. This given an idea to them how their project will look like after the completion. They become able to see the complete picture of the project in the beginning. They also come to know how they should perform to accomplish their task. It is great to show the students work of previous students. Teachers may also find the similar projects online done previously by other students as an example to show to their students. A large number of sample projects available for the students motivate them by showing them the efforts and achievements of other students. Students keep in mind the necessary steps they have to take to perform a specific task efficiently.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The teacher can use any successful project several times in different semesters and different classes. The project specifications can be modified each time. Students can be motivated by showing them the same project and challenge them to show a better project than the previous one (Jonassen & Rohrer-Murphy 1999).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Process   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Process is the third component of a WebQuest. In this component, the students are informed about all the steps that the students need to take for the completion of a project. Each step is surrounded by a number of links. It is advised for projects of longer duration that the teacher or one or two students demonstrate each step. Demonstration helps the students learn each step in a better manner and they become able to understand the written directions more easily (Kennedy 2004).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Resources   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This is the fourth component of a WebQuest. In this component, a list of all the necessary resources that involve printed material and online resources are given to the students for the accomplishment of a specific task.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   A separate section was allocated in the old WebQuests for the resources but now in the recent WebQuests, the resources are attached with the instructions in the Process section. The students can access those resources when they are to perform that step. Though online resource are very important but it is also a fact that non-Web resources are not less important. Resources should be of variety and thus the quality of WebQuests can be enhanced by the use of online and non-Web resources. Non-Web resources can be of different types such as models, audio cassettes, field trips, maps, sculptures, books etc. to motivate the students (Lara 2003).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Evaluation   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Evaluation is the fifth component of a WebQuest. Three types of student examples can be pointed out when the introduction of a WebQuest is presented. The three examples of students include exemplary, acceptable and unacceptable. During the introduction, students are clearly shown what is meant by an excellent work. They are given examples of exemplary and acceptable work thus clearing the vision of the students and to motivate them to work hard to achieve the excellence. Examples of unacceptable work are given to students to show them what type of work cannot be accepted and thus enabling the students to know about the minimum standards required to accomplish a task (Lipscomb 2003).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Conclusion   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This is the last component of a WebQuest. In this component, the students are asked to present their reflections about their work and the teachers are required to sum up the project. Students are given time to discuss their project thus following the constructivist approach that though learning is achieved by doing but learning can be enhanced by discussion of what has been done. Teachers usually encourage their students during the conclusion section to explain if they come up with more better ways to perform the same project (March 2000). WebQuest as a Constructivist Tool   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The constructivism theory explains how learning is achieved by performing a study that involves scientific method and observation. According to the constructivist theory, people learn and understand different aspects of world by their own experiences and by showing their reflections on their experiences. When people find something new, they usually try to bring the new information with their previous experiences. Sometimes, they find the new thing more informative and thus discard the older one and sometimes they find the new information totally irrelevant and thus rely on their previous experiences. In each of the cases, people have to find out by themselves which one is correct and to find that they ask different questions, explore the resources and then come to a conclusion (Milson 2002).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   When constructivist approach is applied in the classroom, different types of teaching ways are explained that can enhance the learning process. The most common of the teaching way is to motivate the students to utilize effective techniques such as real-world examples to gather the information, then to reflect what they have come up with and then conclude what they have done. Students explain how the new idea has changed their previous understanding. It is very important for a teacher to be aware of the previous understandings of the students. Then the teacher guides the students to perform the activity that is based on their previous conceptions.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   When teachers utilize constructivist approach, they always motivate their students to find out the role of the new activity in their learning process. Students usually get the position of expert learners in a constructivist classroom because they are to ask questions themselves. This type of learning broadens their learning process and they come to know how they have to learn (Molebash & Dodge 2003).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   When students are constantly encouraged to reflect on their experiences then they seem to gain power. Strong abilities seem to build up in the students that motivate them for the integration of any new idea or information. Thus it can be said that the one of the most important role of teacher in the constructivist classroom is to motivate the students to experience by themselves and then learn from those experiences by reflecting on them.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Conservative and traditional teachers usually criticize that the role of the teacher is dismissed in the learning. But constructivism encourages teachers to play their role more efficiently and their knowledge is highly valued. In constructivist approach, the teachers are required to motivate the students for the construction of the knowledge by themselves instead of finding out the facts that have been previously observed and noted. In a constructivist classroom, the students are encouraged to use problem solving skills and they are involved in inquiry-based learning.   These activities make the students able enough to test their ideas, reflect on their experience and present the conclusions. A constructivist classroom transforms students from passive recipients that receive information just by sitting in the classroom and listening to their teachers to active participants that not only listen to their teacher but they also get involved in searching information by using interesting methods (Ngeow & Kong 2001).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There is a misconception about the constructivist theory that it forces the students to reject the older ideas and to replace them with new one such as they are asked to reinvent the wheel. But the fact is the constructivist theory does not ask the students for the reinvention of the wheel but with the help of this theory the students come to know how to use the wheel. Real world examples are given to the students that clear their ideas about how the wheels can be used in their daily lives. Thus they learn from their experience, present reflections on their experience and then come up to a conclusion that is based on their experiences.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Constructivist theory is very different from other traditional ideas of education and learning. The focus is put on students rather the teachers in a constructivist classroom. The students are no longer passive students that sit in the classroom and ingest the knowledge provided by their teacher only. They are encouraged in the constructivist classroom how they should struggle to search for information.   The role of the teacher now changes to facilitator who is involved in helping the students rather them forcing them to understand what the teacher says. Constructivist theory can be easily implemented in the WebQuest. Constructivist teachers ask students to initiate a WebQuest project. Students are asked different questions and they are encouraged to find the answers. Students are guided in a way to let them find the answers of the questions independently. Different types of teaching techniques can be used in a constructivist classroom using WebQuest projects. The techniques involve: students are encouraged for the formulation of the questions by themselves. Thus they are encouraged to enquiry-based learning. They are given the freedom to express their learning in multiple meaningful ways. Group work is highly encouraged and each student in a group performs a specific task (Peterson & Caverly 2003). Students are given freedom to find out new things for themselves. Students are given free hand to do the experiments, they can ask questions, and they can do the things that are often considered as things not working. Teachers play different roles such as roles of moderators, coaches and they can also give suggestions to students to facilitate their learning process. In order to enhance the learning process of students, they should be able to participate fully in activities such as hands-on experiments. An important part of using WebQuest as a constructivist tool lies in the fact that students are given permission to give their reflections what they have done and then discuss on the conclusions. Students become experts as they are given complete opportunity to control their learning process. They choose their own path that is solely based on their reflections about their experiences. Teachers play a great role in the creation of an environment where the students are free to ask questions and give their reflections about their experiences. This can happen in private or in the form of group discussions. Teachers are also responsible for the creation of activities in a way that after performing those activities students become able to reflect their previous experiences. It is very important for the students to know what they have learned and how the learning process took place (Savery & Duffy 1995). As constructivism and WebQuest are based on the same theory, the main activity that is performed in a WebQuest classroom is to find the solution of the problems. Inquiry method is used to ask questions. A topic is investigated and then a large number of different types of resources is utilized to find out the solution of the questions. After exploring a certain topics, the students become able to conclude. When students explore questions again and again, new questions come to their mind. Students are encouraged in a WebQuest classroom to have new ideas and do experiments to prove that later shows that their ideas were not correct or valid. But this cannot be considered as a failure because the students have put their steps in the process of knowledge integration. Students are encouraged to work in collaboration with peers. The main reason to include group learning in constructivism is that students learn from the experiences from other students working in the same group besides learning from their own experiences (Vidoni & Maddux 2002). Implementation of WebQuest in School WebQuest can be implemented in schools. In order to implement WebQuest easily and successfully in a school by keeping in mind the following principles: The thinking level of a WebQuest must be higher. The information must be transferred from one domain to another domain. A WebQuest must be designed in such as a way that does not load the students with heavy burden of questions that make the students only surfing the internet or that involve calculations only. A good WebQuest will lead the students to gain information and be the students able to transform that information with the help of their own problem solving skills. Though the creation of WebQuest lessons require a lot of time but it is also a fact that once the teachers have created a lesson plan, they do not have to worry about the preparation of other lesson plans while the students are busy with their work. After the completion of a year, every thing will be all set. The teachers may need some amendments in the WebQuests that had been created in the previous year but it would not take much time and things will go smoothly. Learning through WebQuest is a new way for students as well as it is a new teaching method for teachers. The teachers must keep in mind that students cannot perform a task unless they are familiar with it. Students cannot be expected to perform every task in the correct manner in their first attempt. They need time to practice and the teachers need to have patience. in order to implement a WebQuest successfully, it is necessary to incorporate all the six essential components that have been described in this paper earlier (Scardamalia & Bereiter 1999). Advantages of WebQuests Though the creation of WebQuests requires a large amount of time but once the WebQuests have been created they can be used over and over with some minor changes. The teachers get rid of the daily worries for the lesson planning. Now they get enough time to act as facilitators and coaches to assist the students in their learning process. Tom March has explained the benefits of WebQuests as quoted below: â€Å"WebQuests will motivate your students! Students confront a complex and controversial real-world issue Students grapple with a central question that truly needs answering Students utilize real world, up-to-date resources on the Web (from experts, current reporting, and/or fringe groups) Students assume roles and must develop expertise Results of student work can be posted or sent to real people for feedback and evaluation. WebQuests are rooted in learning theory and good teaching practice Based upon elements of cognitive psychology and constructivism. You provide guidance on the thinking process you want your students to follow. (Prompting or Scaffolding) Students are exposed to a broad range of information, examples, and opinions; they construct their own meaning which connects with their prior knowledge and experiences. (Constructivism) Contain concrete instructional objectives and tasks. Students must transform information in some way, exercising higher order thinking skills like error analysis, comparison, and synthesis. Students work in cooperative learning groups which mirror real-life situations. By taking on roles, students become experts on a specific aspect of a large and complex topic. The students work in groups to solve problems, utilizing their different areas of expertise. (Similar to work situations in real life.) The work of individual students is important, as it adds to the quality of the group’s solution† (What are the benefits, p. 1) Disadvantages of WebQuests WebQuests cannot be used for the learning of simple definitions, simple procedures. They are also not the best way that could be used for teaching factual recall. As some parts of the curriculums are based on such simple things, they cannot be included in the designing of a WebQuest. The biggest hurdle in the designing of a WebQuest is the availability of time. It is very important to learn about the new tools. Many teachers do not get enough time to spend in learning about the new tools for the creation of a WebQuest (VanFossen 2004). Students should be able to read to a certain level in order to work on WebQuests. So it can be said that the creation of WebQuests is much easier for third grade and onwards than the junior grades because their reading abilities are limited at that stage. This type of disadvantage can be over come if a WebQuest is designed very carefully by using more visual sites with less or no words in it for the junior students with limited reading proficiency (Tomlinson 2000). Recommendations WebQuests appear to be highly effective in facilitating the learning process of students. Students tend to learn more in when technology is incorporated in education and WebQuests seem to be the best way. It is strongly recommended that all the schools should incorporate WebQuests in their standard curricula. At the time of implementation there is a need to consider all the six components that are essential for a successful WebQuest. References Almeida, C. Vesu, F. and Ponte, J.P. (2003). WebQuest construction and implementation by mathematics student teacher: The case of a WebQuest to learn isometries. In A.M.Vilas, J.A.M.Gonzà ¡lez and J.M. Gonzà ¡lez (Coords.), Advances in Technology-Based Education: Toward a Knowledge-Based Society, Junta de Extremadura: Badajoz, pp. 1396-1399. Brooks, Jacqueline Grennon and Brooks, Martin G. (1999). In Search of Understanding: The Case for Constructivist Classrooms (revised edition). Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD). Chandler, H. (2003). Concept mapping and WebQuests in social studies. Media and Methods, 39(3), 38-39. Cho, K., & Jonassen, D. (2002). The effects of argumentation scaffolds on argumentation and problem solving. Educational Technology Research and Development, 50(3), 5–22. Dodge, B. (1997). Some thoughts about WebQuests. Retrieved June 7, 2007, from theWebQuest Homepage, San Diego State University: Dodge, D. (2001) FOCUS: Five rules for writing great WebQuests. Learning and Leading with Technology, 28(8), 6-9, 58. Jonassen, D. H., & Rohrer-Murphy, L. (1999). Activity Theory as a Framework For Designing Constructivist Learning Environments. Educational Technology Research and Development, 47(1), 61 – 79. Kennedy, S. (2004). The well-constructed WebQuest. Social Studies and the YoungLearner, 16(4), 17 -19. Lara, S. (2003). WebQuest: The use of Internet to Introduce Inquiry-Based Learning, Cooperative Learning   and 21th Century Skills. En Mà ©ndez Vilas, A. and Mesa Gonzà ¡lez, J.A. (coord). Advances in Technology- Based Education: Toward a Knowledge-Based Society. Vol. 2. Junta de Extremadura. Consejerà ­a de Educa- cià ³n, Ciencia y Tecnologà ­a (pp 1178-1183). Lipscomb, G. (2003). â€Å"I guess it was pretty fun†: Using WebQuests in the middle school classroom. The Clearing House, 76, 152-155. March, T. (2000). WebQuests 101. Multimedia Schools, 7 (5), 55-56, 58. March, T. (2003). The Learning power of WebQuests. Educational Leadership, 61(4), 42-47. March, T. (2007). What WebQuests Are (Really). Retrieved from on June 7, 2007. Milson, A. J. (2002). The Internet and inquiry learning: Integrating medium and method in a sixth grade Social Studies classroom. Theory and Research in Social Education, 30, 330-353. Molebash, P., & Dodge, B. (2003). Kickstarting inquiry with WebQuests and Web inquiry projects. Social Education, 67, 158-162. Ngeow, K. & Kong, Y. (2001). Learning To Learn: Preparing Teachers and Students for Problem-Based Learning. ERIC Digest. [ED 457 524] Peterson, C., & Caverly, D. C. (2003). Techtalk: Developing academic literacy through WebQuests. Journal of Developmental Education, 26(3), 38-41. Savery, J. R., & Duffy, T. M. (1995). Problem-based learning: An instructional model and its constructivist framework. Educational Technology, 35(5), 31–38. Scardamalia, M., & Bereiter, C. (1999). Schools as knowledge-building organizations. In D. Keating & C. Hertzman (Eds.), Today’s children, tomorrow’s society: The developmental health and wealth of nations (pp. 274–289). New York: Guilford. Tomlinson, C.A. (2000). Differentiation of Instruction in the Elementary Grades. ERIC Digest. ED443572 VanFossen, P. J. (2004). Using WebQuests to scaffold higher-order thinking. Social Studies and the Young Learner, 16(4), 13-16. Vidoni, K. L., & Maddux, C. D. (2002). WebQuests: Can they be used to improve critical thinking skills in students? Computers in the Schools, 19, 101 -117. What are the Benefits of Webquests? In Tom March, â€Å"WebQuests for Learning†) retrieved from on June 7, 2007.   

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

The Islamic State Of Iraq And Syria - 1545 Words

If you turn on the news for more than fifteen minutes anywhere in the nation today you are almost sure to hear about the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria otherwise known as ISIS. They are without a doubt one of the most ruthless, violent and extreme terrorists organizations that the World has seen in recent history. Consisting of Sunni Arabs they primarily operate out of the middle east and some parts of southeast Asia, however according to many terror experts they are a real threat to carry-out an attack against the U.S. on our own soil. Earlier this year an Ohio man was arrested who allegedly planned to bomb the U.S. capital in the name of ISIS. This radical Islamist group is growing each day and getting stronger, and poses a real threat†¦show more content†¦Al-Baghdadi is responsible for turning ISIS into what it is today as he has orchestrated and carried out numerous attacks turning the group into one of the most feared terrorist organizations today. ISIS gained strength and numbers after the U.S. military pulled out of Iraq. In 2013 Al-Baghdadi changed the name of the group once again to what it is called at present day - ISIS. In 2014 Al-Qaeda officially disassociated itself from ISIS, because they didn’t want to be held in the same regard and saying that ISIS is â€Å"too extreme†. To date ISIS controls a large portion of territory in Iraq and Syria, and is expanding making it a serious threat to our interests and national security. ISIS falls under an extreme form of Salafi ideology, which is a fundamentalist approach to Islam. The group rejects religious innovations and supports Sharia law. If you don t support their goals or share the same beliefs, ISIS uses extreme violence as an answer. Their beliefs and goals are to return to the early days of Islam or â€Å"Pure Islam.† They abide by an apocalyptic theory and believe that the Mhadi will soon arrive and redeem Islam. (Chosen People, 2015) ISIS has declared themselves a s a caliphate and demanded the support of the global Muslim community. They believe that the world can have only one religion and that is Islam. Their goal is to eradicate the globe of any otherShow MoreRelatedThe Islamic State Of Iraq And Syria1702 Words   |  7 Pagesinto a post-Al Qaeda era in the Middle East, a new threat has emerged from the ashes of the 2003 invasion of Iraq and later in the 2011 war in Syria. The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS, ISIL or Daesh) has rapidly become the most pressing foreign policy concern in the Middle East for the United States. In the last four years, Daesh has gathered swaths of territory in both Iraq and Syria, although it has been driven back thanks to coalition efforts to counter the group. The coalition in placeRead MoreThe Islamic State Of Iraq And Syria1388 Words   |  6 Pagesthere is a new extremist organization that rivals even al -Qaeda (Beauchamp 1). This terror group is named the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria., or in short, ISIS. Three years ago, ISIS did not exist but now it controls parts of Iraq and Syria and has made its own state. Terror organizations like al-Qaeda are merely terrorists groups while ISIS has captured and created their own state. ISIS is a well developed organization that has shown their handiwork repeatedly on social media and YouTube (KhederyRead MoreThe Islamic State Of Iraq And Syria1603 Words   |  7 PagesThe Background: The Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) came to power a decade ago as a small terrorist threat that grew out of the terrorist organization Al Qaeda. When the United States began to pull its troops in the Middle East, Iraq leader, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, took advantage of the unstable government and reinvigorated ISIS. In just this past year, ISIS has shown us that it is more powerful than Al Qaeda by conquering oil fields and territory in Iraq and Syria with the hopes of creatingRead MoreThe Islamic State Of Iraq And Syria1746 Words   |  7 Pages The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) is the newer and more intimidating version of the famous terrorist group Al Qaeda. The group makes an appearance in the news almost every day. Over the past couple of years, they have multiplied in numbers. Not limited only to the Middle East, there are people all over the world who have proclaimed allegiance to ISIS. The Islamic extremist group has set out to destroy anything or anyone that comes in their way or do not agree with what they stand for. InRead MoreThe Islamic State Of Iraq And Syria Essay794 Words   |  4 PagesMy research topic will explore the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria, also known as (ISIS). I chose this topic because it has been an ongoing issue recently along with being a hot and dangerous topic. Picking this topic will help me exploit my audience and grab their attention. Before choosing this topic, I didn’t know very much about it until I did some research and realized how dangerous this Islamic group rea lly is. During my argument I will argue how ISIS has divided countries and have causedRead MoreIslamic State Of Iraq And Syria1629 Words   |  7 Pages Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) is a military and political organization which is mainly led by nationals of Iraq and Syria. ISIS has committed crimes of unimaginable cruelty in Syria and Iraq but the international criminal court (ICC) does not have the power to open a case, according to Fatou Bensouda. The court was unable to prosecute because neither Syria nor Iraq were members of ICC. (ICC, 2015) Crimes which have been reported, consist of mass executions, sexual slavery, rape and otherRead MoreThe Islamic State Of Syria And Iraq2191 Words   |  9 PagesIntroduction The Islamic State of Syria and Iraq (ISIS) is a radical terrorist organization which has separated itself from other terrorist organizations through its scope of violence, ability and pervasive rhetoric. Since its rise to prominence, the group has caused both localized and international turmoil and loss of civilian life. Despite the ardent failure of the United Nations and its member states to recognize the Islamic state as a legitimate state, ISIS has managed to control and establishRead MoreThe Islamic State Of Syria And Iraq1699 Words   |  7 PagesISIS; the Islamic State of Syria and Iraq better known for their mass killings, terrorist attacks, and intense regime. This group was founded in 1999, and was created by people who were former Al Qaeda members. ISIS is a group of terrorists with members positioned all over the world to carry out with mass killings. The members have been radicalized to believe irrational thoughts of killing harmless human beings. The whole world is aware of the issue, and knows that this terrorist group needsRead MoreThe Islamic State Of Iraq And Syria1308 Words   |  6 PagesCanada Should Participate in the Global Coalition to Fight ISIS The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) has made headlines throughout the globe this past year with their atrocities against religious minorities and determination to create an Islamic caliphate. They have expressed, throughout, that their primary objective is to establish a Salafist government over the Levant region of Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Cyprus, and Southern Turkey(†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦). The group controls hundreds of square miles, whereRead MoreThe Islamic State Of Iraq And Syria1647 Words   |  7 Pages The Legend on Modernist Terrorism The radical Islamic terrorist organization, recently re-titled â€Å"the Islamic State†, has existed under several names since the 1990s. Its history is an epic of how modern terrorism progressed from a religious and political ideal into an obliterating cult. The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) is a properly-armed group that is a threat to the global security. ISIS, whose merciless members delight in murdering innocent people, must be destroyed before

Tuesday, December 31, 2019

Hester Prynne in The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 2142 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2019/05/08 Category Literature Essay Level High school Tags: The Scarlet Letter Essay Did you like this example? In modern day life, strong emotions tend to guide the actions individuals make on a daily basis. Having such an intense emotion can lead an individual to believe a deceitful or unlawful action is one of good. Nathaniel Hawthorne is an American novelist who writes romantic stories because he was a part of the Romanticism Movement. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Hester Prynne in The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne" essay for you Create order The novel The Scarlet Letter shows the story about a woman named Hester Prynne who has sinned and has been forced to wear an embroiled A on her for the whole community to see. Hester is living in a strict puritan society where she cant allow her emotions or senses to dictate her actions even when there is no intention of committing such an unlawful deed. The people in the society can say any hurtful or cruel words about Hester and her sin because she is now an outcast in her own world among everyone else. The only place where she can be forgiven is in nature, so that is where Hester and Dimmesdale can be honest about what they have done. Hester doesnt allow the A that identifies her sin control how she should act or how she lives her daily life as a normal human being. Nathanial Hawthorne emphasized on emotions and senses that a typical human would face during the American Romanticism Movement. Hester Prynne is put in front of the eyes of the whole puritan community as she is forced to face her unlawful deed which resulted into her having an embroiled A put on her bosom. As Hester Prynne is facing her reality, she is being criticized for not being able to control her emotions and natural senses. The A that is embroidered onto Hesters bosom shows the community that there are consequences that come with emotions, whether they can be controlled or not. Hester is now in an untamed natural world where the community can say whatever they want about her and her daughter just because of the actions that she chose to take. As stated in the book, On the other hand, a penalty which in our days would infer a degree of mocking infamy and ridicule might then be invested with almost as stern a dignity as the punishment of death itself (page 48) shows connection t o the definition of the Romanticism movement. Hester has the A permanently to her name and identity now and it will never go away because she is in an untamed world where her unlawful deed follows her everywhere she goes. She feels the shame and agony as she takes each step past the stern-browed men and unkindly visaged women without being able to cover her face. Hester found it almost intolerable to be standing there in front of the public staring at her child and bosom taking the stings and stabs that were thrown her way. Hester Prynne is in an untamed world where the women and man can say cruel and awful words about her because of a blatantly obvious A embroidered on her bosom. The men and women are saying if we stripped Madam Hesters rich gown off her sanity shoulders; and as for the red letter, which she hath stitched so curiously, Ill bestow a rag of mine own rheumatic flannel, to make a flitter one. (page 52). The women and men can say degrading words behind her back or as sh e walks past them and there is no way of stopping them from expressing their emotions because of the untamed world that they have been placed in. Throughout the book, Hester Prynne, though being the female lead in the story, is not the only individual being affected mentally by the world that is the new Eden. The book makes it known that Dimmesdale does not receive community negativity; him being a Minister, always having his hand over his heart, not showcasing his embroidered A to the public. Having this character that should be sharing fault for the crime committed, but not sharing the consequences, shows that men may not be as invincible as they may seem. As stated by Roger Chillingworth, husband of Hester Prynne, these men deceive themselves, they fear to take up the shame that rightfully belongs to them. Their love for man, their zeal for Gods service these holy impulses may or may not coexist in their hearts with the evil inmates to which their guilt has unbarred the door, and which must needs propagate a hellish breed within them. (page 129). The previously stated quote sheds light on the fact that men should share sh ame for a crime committed with a woman (adultery). In nature, men are seen as more dominant, stronger, worthier than women. Dimmesdale, knowing that if his A was showcased for the community to see would jeopardize his reputation, chooses to cover up his embroidered letter on his chest. Until one day Dimmesdale gets the courage to confess his sin as an adulterer in a grand gesture and once he does this Chillingworth power over him is officially lost. All in all, this book perfectly shows that in nature, all sorts of emotions dominate an individual day in and day out. While the whole book itself connects to the definition of the Romanticism Movement by proving that strong emotions rule all actions, at the same time, Hester takes on a new future with her perfectly embroidered A on her bosom. Instead of choosing to be diminished by the letter, she showcases her independence and faces her new reality with a strong head. As stated in chapter 2 it was so artistically done, and with so much fertility and gorgeous luxuriance of fancy, that the apparel which she wore; and which was of the splendor accordance with the taste of the age, but greatly beyond what was allowed by the sumptuary regulations of the colony. (page 51). The community has never seen Hester Prynne look so lady like as she is walking out of the prison door with a perfectly embroiled A on her bosom. People that knew her before this day were astonished to see that there wasnt a cloud of gray over her, but beauty was shining through her for the people to see. The A had a different effect up on Hester because it took her out of the normal relation of humanity and put her in a sphere of her own as being different. A woman of the community who was one of Hesters spectators felt that she did a impeccable job of embroidering the A and wondered if any woman before her had the same way of showing of her unlawful deed. As the book continues Hester Prynne doest allow the A on her bosom to dictate her punishment. Hester Prynne alters the meaning of the letter A with her hard work and not letting the A determine what she can and cant do just because of her sin that she did. Years have passed since the people of the community has last seen Hester Prynne and she has returned by herself without pearl to take up her long-forsaken shame of the scarlet letter. As stated in the book but, through the remainder of Hesters life, there were indications that the recluse of the scarlet letter was the object of love and interest with some inhabitant of another land. (page 256-257). Hester chan ges the meaning of the scarlet letter to able meaning she is an able women who didnt let the letter define her and her actions for the rest of her life. The puritan community has a very strict society where an individual cant allow themselves to let their emotions and senses control the actions they take throughout life. A rose bush has continually been at the prison since Ann Hutchinson entered and the flowers have been kept alive ever since. As stated in the book it may serve, let us hope, to symbolize some sweet moral blossom that may be found along the track, or relieve the darkening close of a tale of human frailty and sorrow. (page 46). The rose bush is hoping to give the prisoners some relief and reassure that nature could have pity and be kind to the err55rprisoner as they enter their doom. The black flower punishes in while the rose bush shows that there is forgiveness to those who are being sentenced to their death. Hester and Dimmesdale meet in the dark forest where is the only place that they have felt safe to interact with each other. As stated in the book oh, I have much to tell thee about her! But, in very much truth, she is right as regards this hateful token. I must bear its to torture yet a little longer-only a few days longer- until we shall have left this region and look back hither as to a land which we have dreamed of. The forest cannot hide it. (page 207) Hester and Dimmesdale only talked about their escapement from the society in the forest because thats where they feel comfort and protection. No where else in the society can make them feel that way except the forest because when they are surrounded by other people of the society they dont talk about what happens in the forest. Nature is forgiving and since both of them have either guilt or shame following them because they committed adultery that this is the only place where they can be themselves with each other. Nature gives them a break from a society where you cant be human and allow any emotions or senses to surface. The Scarlet Letter is a great representation of the American Romanticism movement that Nathaniel Hawthorne was apart of. Hester Prynne is forced into a cruel world where she gets criticized for her emotions and the actions that happen because of them. She is surrounded by people who just see the A on her bosom and not see her for anything else because the society is so untamed. The society is trying to be established so that there is no evil to be seen and to make sure that if people follow their emotions there will be consequences. Hester cant control what the men and women of the society say about her or her child or that her child cant play with the other children. Hester Prynne is portrayed as an attempt of society to correct sin through the struggle of an individual by placing shame upon her that everyone sees. The society has made her an outcast because of her sin, but she has survived it and has become a stronger person through the whole experience. She was humiliated and was all by herself with no one else feeling the way she was, but was able to overcome it and handle whatever they threw at her. The society was so against Hester for the sin she has committed that it was her who was her biggest enemy it was the society itself and what they were doing to her to make her feel that way. Chillingworth committed a terrible sin when he tries to take revenge on Dimmesdale when he knows that it is the worst sin and will tear him and his soul apart. Nature also plays an important role in Hesters life because it is not like the society and how nature helped her gain wisdom to overcome her sin even though she was in the public eye constantly. The Scarlet letter really showed the connection between the natural world and human emotions through Hester and Dimmesdale finally feelings comfort and protection from the society. Nature allowed Hester to feel human and feel like her emotions and senses were allowed to happen even though the cruel society made her feel humil iated, she still found a place where she could be herself. Nathaniel Hawthorne was apart of the Romanticism Movement and wrote a novel called The Scarlet Letter. Hester Prynne is in an untamed natural world where she has committed a sin and has to deal with all the criticism that comes with it. She has an embroiled A put on her and she has to wear it everywhere she goes with the shame and agony following her. Hester doesnt allow the A to define her by making sure it is perfectly embroiled into her clothing to allow for a different meaning to surface. She has no way to escape from the strict society except in nature where she feels secure from the outside world where all they see is her sin. Hester Prynne isnt the only who is facing the wrath from the public eye because Arthur Dimmesdale has guilt flooding inside of him from the sin. The Puritan society doesnt allow the individuals to feel their true emotions or senses or else they will sin and be an outcast with shame following them everywhere they turn.

Sunday, December 22, 2019

Skin - We Can Only Understand Our Identity Once We...

One’s identity is who or what a person is and how they are perceived by themselves and others. Your identity defines who you are and where you fit in. It is a self-representation of your interests, relationship, social activity and much more. Some believe our sense of identity and belonging is shaped by various factors, including our experiences, relationships, and our environments. Conversely, others believe that personality is shaped by nature, and that one is defined by their biological characteristics and hereditary traits passed down from previous generations. Nevertheless a combination of both nature and nurture shapes us throughout life. For a majority of the population their journey to find their identity and belonging can often†¦show more content†¦Just as family does, education plays a major role in the shaping and development of your identity throughout your childhood and adolescence, during primary and secondary school. Although completely unaware, the t eachers, bullies and friends at school are influencing the decisions made and ultimately are part of the personality that defines who you are. Sandra Laing, although having a coloured appearance, was for a short time allowed to attend an all-white school; because at first, legally Sandra was white. However after many beatings, bullying and downright humiliation, Sandra was expelled from the school, because, as her parents were told, â€Å"Sandra does not belong here†. Little did they know this action turned out to define the way Sandra accepted white people into her difficult life. Point being that, no matter how insignificant situations, experiences or environments may seem; the interpretations, memories and influences can last a whole life long. This fact plays out not only in the school yard, but also later in life in work places and in relationships. Everyone has struggled with their identity and belonging during a chapter of their life. There comes a time when our opinions and beliefs begin to differ from those around us. During this time, some people may discover which relationships they belong in, and those which they may not. However relationships are importantShow MoreRelatedWhite Privilege : Unpacking The Invisible Knapsack967 Words   |  4 PagesWise’s examination of the inconspicuous character of racism 2.0 dovetails fittingly with our course’s recurring theme of institutionalized racism. In class lectures we have defined institutionalized racism as the discriminatory practices that have become regularized and routinized by state agencies, organizations, industries, or anywhere else in society. Although such practices might not be intentionally racist, they end up being racist nevertheless as consequence of the systematized and unspokenRead MoreAdvantages And Disadvantages Of Being Mistreated Essay1219 Wor ds   |  5 PagesNot only do I, but all of us have advantages and disadvantages in our lives based on the many different aspects of who we are. Some disadvantages will outweigh the advantages greatly and vice versa. However, just because a person may have advantages in their lives, does not overthrow or deny the disadvantages in their lives. The word privilege according to the feminist mind, is easily defined as a set of unearned benefits given to people who are appropriate for a specific social group. The reasonRead MoreUnderstanding Different Cultures Of A Racially Diverse Society1958 Words   |  8 Pagesin finding a way that could help people to better understand each other and the different cultures that make up our society today. 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To distinguish between oneself from others, one must be able to recognize their unique traits and characteristicsRead MorePhillis Wheatley Poem On Religion1527 Words   |  7 Pagesshe bestows upon the Europeans that we know have taken her from her homeland due to the enslavement of the African people. Her passion to write about the importance of the Christian religion is reflected in her work including her poem â€Å"On Being Brought from Africa to America.† In this poem, she explains her appreciation for the white race. Being of the enslaved people during this time, is puzzling to read such th ings but intrigues one to comprehensively understand why she feels this way. She touchesRead MoreWorking With The Multi Cultural Population2266 Words   |  10 PagesWorking With The Multi-Cultural Population Counseling is a field that can be very rewarding for both the client as well as the clinician. Nevertheless, it can also offer great challenges. The benefits of counseling far outweigh the bad. Nonetheless, there is a certain population of individuals who some clinicians may have a difficult time counseling more than others. The recent concerns for gender and sexual orientation constantly are in the limelight, especially amongst the political forefrontRead MoreEssay on The Category of the Individual4933 Words   |  20 Pagesthat it is necessary. Foucault is concerned with language because it is a mode by which we maintain order in the world, and according to his argument, what we should fear are heterotopias, which undermine language, make it impossible to name this and that, shatter or tangle common names, and destroy syntax in advance (Foucault xviii). When Foucault refers to syntax, he is not just talking about our method of constructing sentences but also that less apparent syntax which causes words